Orthography of U̧ailan

U̧ailan is written in the Latin script and contains a number of letters that use diacritics (c̆, ċ, ğ, j̊, ɬ, ñ, ṗ, s̆, u̧, ų, and ù), as well as two characters that are not found in the ISO basic Latin alphabet (ɣ and ƣ). All letters have a majuscule and miniscule form.

Grapheme-to-Phoneme Correspondences:


• B, b: /b/
• C, c: /k/
• C̆, c̆ : /t͡ʃ/
• Ċ, ċ : /kʼ/
• D, d: /d/
• F, f: /ɸ/
• G, g: /g/
• Ğ, ğ: /d͡ʒ/
• Ɣ, ɣ: /ɣ/
• Ƣ, ƣ: /ɢ/
• J, j: /x/
• J̊, j̊: /ʒ/
• L, l: /l/
• Ɬ, ɬ: /ʎ/
• M, m: /m/
• N, n: /n/
• Ñ, ñ: /ɲ/
• P, p: /p/
• Ṗ, ṗ: /pʼ/
• Q, q: /q/
• R, r: /r/
• S, s: /s/
• S̆, s̆: /ʃ/
• T, t: /tʼ/
• U̧, u̧: /w/
• Ų, ų: /ɰ/
• V, v: /β/
• Z, z: /z/


• A, a: /a/
• E, e: /e~ɛ/
• I, i: /i/
• O, o: /o~ɔ/
• U, u: /u/
• Ù, ù: /y/

U̧ailan Alphabet

The names of the consonants are, without exception, identical to the sound produced by that consonant plus the vowel /a/. For example, the first few consonants are referred to as ba, ca, c̆a, ċa, and da (/ba, ka, t͡ʃa, kʼa, da/). The names of the vowels are a, e, i, o, u, and ù and are pronounced identically to the sound indicated by them (/a, e~ɛ, i, o~ɔ, u, y/.

Information on Diacritics and Special Characters:

There are eight diacritics: the breve, the dot, the ring, the belt, the tilde, the grave accent, the ogonek, and the cedilla. Of these, the breve is the most common, being used over the letters c, g, and s (c̆, ğ, and s̆) to indicate the phonemes /t͡ʃ/, /d͡ʒ/, and /ʃ/, respectively. The dot is used above the letters c and p (ċ and ṗ) to signify that they are the ejectives /kʼ/ and /pʼ/, respectively. The rest of the diacritics are used with only one letter: the ring is used with the letter j (j̊) to indicate the phoneme /ʒ/, the belt is used with the letter l (ɬ) to indicate /ʎ/, the tilde is used over the letter n (ñ) to indicate /ɲ/, and the grave accent, ogonek, and cedilla are used with the letter u (ù, ų, and u̧) to indicate the vowel /y/ and the consonants /ɰ/ and /w/, respectively.

As mentioned above, the letters that are not included on the ISO basic Latin alphabet are ɣ, which represents the phoneme /ɣ/, and ƣ, which represents /ɢ/. The former is the Latin letter gamma, a modification of the Greek letter by the same name (γ). The latter is the Latin letter gha, which has been used historically in the orthographies of various Turkic languages, but today is considered superannuated.


As in English, the first word in a sentence and proper nouns are capitalized in U̧ailan. However, U̧ailan differs from English in that it does not capitalize the names of the names of days, months, languages, nationality, nouns and adjective derived from proper names, nouns and adjectives of religious affiliation, or titles when accompanied by names. For example, whereas English would capitalize the words Friday, July, Persian, American, Marxism, Marxist, Islam, Muslim, and president in the phrase “President Obama”, U̧ailan would not.


U̧ailan uses the same punctuation marks and conventions as English.

Other Conventions

Although the script is for the most part phonemic, when consonants are part of a specific morphemic element and not part of the root word, they are typically written as though geminated in order to signal this, even though they are not geminated in pronunciation. For example, the word bundaj̊j̊a (“a round thing”) is pronounced as /bun.da.ʒa/ despite the fact that the spelling would seem to indicate a pronunciation of /bun.daʒ.ʒa/. This is because bund– is the root of the word, while –aj̊j̊, in contrast, is a separate morpheme, one that lends the meaning of “a concrete idea” to the root noun.

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